Interesting

Lime Plaster Statue from Ain Ghazal

Lime Plaster Statue from Ain Ghazal


Dioptase

Dioptase is an intense emerald-green to bluish-green copper cyclosilicate mineral. It is transparent to translucent. Its luster is vitreous to sub-adamantine. Its formula is Cu6Si6O18·6H2O (also reported as CuSiO2(OH)2). It has a hardness of 5, the same as tooth enamel. Its specific gravity is 3.28–3.35, and it has two perfect and one very good cleavage directions. Additionally, dioptase is very fragile, and specimens must be handled with great care. It is a trigonal mineral, forming 6-sided crystals that are terminated by rhombohedra.

It is popular with mineral collectors and is sometimes cut into small gems. It can also be ground up and used as a pigment for painting.


Danah Tuffaha, Hanan Al-Amad and Nedaa Elias

Three creative friends came together to share their passion for the colorful life of Jordan. A storyteller, an architect, and an artist desired to inform the world of the rich culture through a medium all can enjoy, while allowing all to contribute their own creative energy through this coloring book. Oftentimes, people only get to see a small portion of what Jordan has to offer through the most visited attractions. In this coloring book, children and adults alike can learn the rich history and culture by immersing themselves page by page, color by color, from north to south. For many, this book is about embarking authentically into a world new to them, and for those whom Jordan is home to, nostalgia lives through each carefully crafted illustration. The authors hope that by exploring this book, you will find the hidden treasures that have long made Jordan a cherished and unique gem in our world.


Archaeology

'Ain Ghazal was discovered in 1974 by developers who were building a road through the area. [1] Excavation began in 1982, however by this time, around 600 meters (1,970 ft) of road ran through the site. Despite the damage urban expansion brought, what remained of 'Ain Ghazal provided a wealth of information and continued to do so until 1989. One of the more notable archaeological finds during these first excavations came to light in 1983. While examining a cross section of earth in a path carved out by a bulldozer, archaeologists came across the edge of a large pit 2.5 meters (8 ft) under the surface containing plaster statues. Another set of excavations, under the direction of Gary O. Rollefson and Zeidan Kafafi took place in the early 1990s. The site was included in the 2004 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund, to call attention to the threat of encroaching urban development.


Ancient sites similar to or like ɺin Ghazal

Unscheduled airport located in Marka district, Greater Amman Municipality, Jordan, some 5 km north-east of Amman city center. After being the city's main airport from 1950 until 1983, there are no scheduled commercial passenger flights at the airport anymore. Wikipedia

Historical site at the center of downtown Amman, the capital of Jordan. One of the seven hills that originally made up Amman. Wikipedia

Historic site in the Amman Citadel in Amman, Jordan. Thought to be the most significant Roman structure in the Amman Citadel. Wikipedia

Airline based in Amman, Jordan. It operates charter passenger services throughout the Middle East, Persian Gulf and parts of Europe. Wikipedia

Located in Ras Al-Ein district of Amman, Jordan. Largest museum in Jordan and hosts the country's most important archaeological findings. Wikipedia

Airline based in Amman, Jordan. Founded in 2005 as a subsidiary of RUM Group , but acquired its first airplane only in October 2010. Wikipedia

Capital and largest city of Jordan and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Largest city in the Levant region and the sixth-largest city in the Arab world. Wikipedia

One of the governorates of Jordan, located about 180 km south-west of Amman, Jordan's capital. Bordered by Karak Governorate to the north, Ma' an Governorate to the east and south, Aqaba Governorate to the south, and by Israel to the west. Wikipedia


Danah Tuffaha, Hanan Al-Amad and Nedaa Elias

Three creative friends came together to share their passion for the colorful life of Jordan. A storyteller, an architect, and an artist desired to inform the world of the rich culture through a medium all can enjoy, while allowing all to contribute their own creative energy through this coloring book. Oftentimes, people only get to see a small portion of what Jordan has to offer through the most visited attractions. In this coloring book, children and adults alike can learn the rich history and culture by immersing themselves page by page, color by color, from north to south. For many, this book is about embarking authentically into a world new to them, and for those whom Jordan is home to, nostalgia lives through each carefully crafted illustration. The authors hope that by exploring this book, you will find the hidden treasures that have long made Jordan a cherished and unique gem in our world.


Contents

The Jordan Archaeological Museum was established in 1951 hosting Jordan's most important archaeological findings. However, the old site became too small and the idea of developing a new modern museum emerged in 2005. [3] A joint committee headed by Queen Rania, became responsible for developing the idea of a new modern museum by international standards. Construction started in 2009 and the museum was officially opened in 2014, spanning over 10,000 square meters. [3]

The museum is located in the Ras Al-Ein area near downtown Amman, adjacent to the Greater Amman Municipality headquarters. The Museum is only a street away from major archaeological sites in Amman such as the Roman theater, Nymphaeum, Amman Citadel and The Hashemite Plaza. [1]

The museum hosts animal bones dating back to 1.5 million years, 'Ain Ghazal lime plaster statues, Copper Scroll from the Dead Sea Scrolls, a copy of Mesha Stele. The Mesha Stele is a large black basalt stone that was erected in Moab and was inscribed by Moabite king Mesha, in which he lauds himself for the building projects that he initiated in Moab (modern day Al-Karak) and commemorates his glory and victory against the Israelites. [4] The stele constitutes one of the most important direct accounts of biblical history. [5] The original Mesha Stele is on display at the French Louvre Museum and Jordan has been constantly demanding return. [6] The human statues found at 'Ain Ghazal constitute one of the world's oldest human statues ever made by human civilization dating back to 7000 BC. 'Ain Ghazal is a major Neolithic village in Amman that was discovered in 1981. [2] The Dead Sea Copper Scroll was found near Khirbet Qumran, which is an inventory of hidden gold and silver in specie, but also some vessels, presumably taken from the Temple in Jerusalem in circa 68 CE. It is written in a Mishnaic-style of Hebrew. [7]


Lime plaster statues

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, about 7200 BC
From 'Ain Ghazal, Jordan

These statues, modelled in lime plaster over armatures of reeds and twine, are part of an extraordinary cache found buried in a carefully prepared pit, discovered at 'Ain Ghazal on the outskirts of Amman in Jordan. They are perhaps the most remarkable examples of prehistoric art from the period known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. Dating to the end of the eighth millennium BC, they are among the earliest large-scale representations of the human form.

The statues, of which there may be as many as 25, fall into two categories according to their size. All have naturalistically rendered heads and faces, but whereas the smaller figures have schematized bodies, the larger ones have realistically represented bodies with arms and legs, hands and feet, and, in some cases, breasts. Many of the statues are decorated with paint to indicate hair, items of clothing, and also to highlight the facial features.

The eyes have been built up in a purer, whiter plaster than that used for the main statue. A black bituminous material has been used to create the iris-pupils, and the same material has been pressed into grooves surrounding the eyeballs, but here the effect is further enhanced by the addition of an unusual green mineral pigment, dioptase.

At the time of their discovery, the statues were given names by the excavators and conservators. These three were called Micah (small figure), Noah (large figure with missing arm) and Heifa (large figure).

J.N. Tubb, Canaanites (London, The British Museum Press, 1998)

* Retratos de Bonecos de cera feitos por Hiroshi Sugimoto
sites: http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/sugimoto/# e http://www.sugimotohiroshi.com/wax.html

Descrição no site de Sugimoto:

In the sixteenth century, Flemish court painter to the British Crown
Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) gave us the imposingly regal
portrait of Henry VIII now kept in London's Royal Portrait Gallery.
Based on this Holbein portrait, the wax figure artisans of Madame
Tussaud's in their consummate skill recreated an absolutely faithful
likeness of the king. Which allowed me―based on my own studies into
the Renaissance lighting Holbein might have painted by―to re-do the
Royal Portrait, substituting photography for painting, the sole recording
medium available at the time. If this photograph now appears lifelike to
you, you had better reconsider what it means to be alive here and now. Hiroshi Sugimoto

* TV Buddha (1974) Closed Circuit video installation with bronze sculpture


Jordan’s history warrants more than a centennial

Our Kingdom and people deserve to have more reasons to celebrate: The centennial is a great reminder of the accomplishments of our beloved Kingdom and a commemoration to the Arab patriots who stayed loyal to the mission of the Great Arab Revolt, the dream of the Arab Kingdom, and the liberation from Ottoman influence and Pan-Turkism. Yet Jordanians have much more than a 100 years to celebrate in their diverse and history-rich country.اضافة اعلان

Jordan is home to the most ancient human cultures known to man. “The Two-Headed Statue”, made of lime plaster, reed, and bitumen and found in Ain Ghazal village on the outskirts of Amman is considered the earliest large-scale representation of the human form and one of the most notable examples of prehistoric art from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period.

According to Ihab Amarin, the general manager of the Jordan Museum, three of these series of statues are on display (as a loan) at the British Museum in London, the Paris’ Louvre, and Abu Dhabi’s Louvre. The statues are almost 9,000 years old, i.e. 4,000 years older than the oldest highly-celebrated Egyptian mummy.

“The Mesha Stele,” the longest Iron Age inscription ever discovered in the region, is an important demonstration of the Moabite language, and an exceptional account of military campaigns launched by King Mesha against the oppression of the King of Israel at the time.

It carries a parallel narrative to that found in the Old Testament when Mesha’s god speaks to him and gives his clear approval for war, promising victory and protecting him from enemy forces.

The stele was erected in the acropolis of Dibon, an area in Jordan that enjoys breathtaking mountainous and desert views. It is interesting to know that the distinctiveness of the Mesha Stele started a contest between Germany, France, and England to acquire it when it was discovered, but the pressure exerted by the Ottomans on Jordanian tribes to deliver it to the Germans caused the “Bani Hamad” Bedouins to destroy it and burn it in revenge of earlier atrocities committed against their countrymen by the Turks.

After being restored, it is currently being displayed in a special room at the Louvre in Paris and Jordan is calmly asking for its return.

At the end of a tour at the Jordan Museum, visitors can read about the Dead Sea scrolls, which are ancient Jewish and Hebrew religious manuscripts that were found in caves on the northern shore of the Dead Sea and date to the third century BC. Wikipedia cites scholarly consensus that those scripts include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Scrolls have been seized by those west of the river with no known effort to demand their rightful return.

A 100 years is too short of a period to celebrate. There is much to say about the inhabitants of this land, be it the Nabateans who had a remarkable understanding of water-harvesting, distillation, and hydraulics or the Ain Ghazal Jordanians whose knowledge of chemistry produced the first-ever gypsum statue known to mankind or the free thinkers who fled from the fundamental religious authorities from across the river and insisted on preserving their own views of religion and law during biblical times in the caves of the Dead Sea or King Mesha who fought for his nation’s freedom and stability against the aggression of neighboring enemies.

The Jordanians that resided in this land, loved it, and welcomed those who came in peace and sought shelter in it. They have always fought for its freedom and the prosperity of its cities.

Witnessing all this wealth makes one wonder why our public institutions don’t proudly and unreservedly celebrate and promote this diversity and distinctiveness of history.

Why don’t we highlight the presence and impact of all the ancient civilizations that flourished here in our educational curricula so that we transform every pupil into a tour guide of this fabulous open-air museum? Is there a fear of upsetting the sensitive religious camp in Jordan that prevents the touristic, media, and educational institutions from broadly promoting Jordan’s narrative beyond a certain civilization, or is it pure negligence?

We have a lot to say about the history of the ancient world, with its diversity of religions, deities, thoughts, and knowledge, and about more recent civilizations with their wars, setbacks, victories, and waves of exodus. Jordan’s arms must be wide open and its narrative and history widely and enthusiastically recounted.

As for the 100-year anniversary, I say, let’s take advantage of every occasion to celebrate, but I think 10,000-year anniversary is more like it.


Lime Plaster Statue from Ain Ghazal - History

Writing is the process of using symbols to communicate thoughts and ideas in a readable form, something that many of us take for granted in the 21st century being taught to read and write at a very early age, but when did the concept of written communication begin?

The Sumerian archaic style of writing known as pre-Cuneiform is often quoted as the first written language in human history, first seen some time between 3,400 and 3,100 BC, at a similar time when Egyptian hieroglyphs were also emerging. Less than a thousand year later, texts from Egypt to the Middle East were coherent and developed but is this really the birth of written communication, or does it in fact go back much, much further?

Paleoanthropologist and rock art researcher Genevieve von Petzinger has studied ancient markings from caves across Europe and what she has discovered is something quite astounding.

Von Petzinger studies art in European caves that date to between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago because she is particularly interested in the development of the modern mind, the evolution of human imagination, creativity and abstract thought – the things that make us human.

Whilst documenting the 350 examples of rock art in European Ice Age caves, she made an incredible discovery, that there are only 32 specific rock art signs or symbols, signs that continued to be drawn over a 30,000-year timespan and were seen throughout the entire continent of Europe.

Watch the video to learn more about this incredible discovery and what it means for the study of human origins and how our ancient ancestors communicated.


Watch the video: Секрет цементной штукатурки без ТРЕЩИН на газобетоне!!! (January 2022).