Luxemberg Population - History

Luxemberg Population - History


The people of Luxembourg descend from a Celtic base with French and German blend. There are also guest-workers from Portugal, Italy, and other European countries.
480.222 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.8% (male 46,478; female 43,656)
15-64 years: 66.6% (male 161,466; female 158,261)
65 years and over: 14.7% (male 28,530; female 41,831) (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.207% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:
11.84 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:
8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:
8.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.065 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.682 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
4.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.03 years
female: 82.52 years (2007 est.)
male: 75.76 years
Total fertility rate:
1.78 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2003 est.)
noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups:
Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kososvo) and European (guest and resident workers)
the greatest preponderance of the population is Roman Catholic with a very few Protestants, Jews, and Muslims
note: 1979 legislation forbids the collection of religious statistics
Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)

Luxembourg : Administrative Division

The population of the cantons and communes of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg according to census results and latest official estimates.

The icon links to further information about a selected division including its population structure (gender, age groups, age distribution, nationality, main language).

Capellen ( Kapellen )Canton27,14831,79137,13341,17350,733
Dippach ( Dippech )Commune2,0082,5883,1893,5444,461
Garnich ( Garnech )Commune1,1111,2641,4951,8612,221
Habscht ( incl. Hobscheid, Septfontaines )Commune2,5472,7313,3403,8404,803
Käerjeng ( incl. Bascharage, Clemency )Commune6,0726,6628,6959,67110,517
Kehlen ( Kielen )Commune2,7274,3814,7925,0486,138
Koerich ( Käerch )Commune1,3921,5171,8022,2832,642
Kopstal ( Koplescht )Commune3,0232,9633,0023,0974,116
Mamer Commune5,4236,2646,7537,47310,218
Steinfort ( Stengefort )Commune2,8453,4214,0654,3565,617
Clervaux ( Klierf )Canton9,88010,55912,83615,40519,382
Clervaux ( Klierf, Cliärref incl. Munshausen, Heinerscheid )Commune2,8342,9913,5574,3585,605
Parc Hosingen ( Parc Housen incl. Consthum, Hoscheid )Commune1,6731,8522,2232,9843,732
Troisvierges ( Ëlwen )Commune1,8581,9932,5232,9193,367
Weiswampach ( Wäisswampech )Commune8829761,1521,3622,104
Wincrange ( Wëntger )Commune2,6332,7473,3813,7824,574
Diekirch ( Dikrech )Canton20,93122,33125,60328,48933,944
Bettendorf ( Bettenduerf )Commune1,7482,0192,3142,4892,902
Bourscheid ( Buerschent )Commune9241,0271,1301,3361,701
Diekirch ( Dikrech )Commune5,5855,5896,0686,3187,047
Erpeldange-sur-Sûre ( Ierpeldeng op der Sauer )Commune1,1601,5482,0612,2952,452
Ettelbruck ( Ettelbréck )Commune6,4546,5527,3447,8319,246
Feulen ( Feelen )Commune1,0031,1691,3691,5852,263
Mertzig ( Mäerzeg )Commune9201,0331,4391,7462,285
Reisdorf ( Reisduerf )Commune5435317411,0431,288
Schieren Commune1,1731,2931,3581,4972,073
Vallée de l'Ernz ( Ärenzdallgemeng incl. Medernach, Ermsdorf )Commune1,4211,5701,7792,3492,687
Echternach ( Iechternach )Canton10,64911,73414,13416,67019,463
Beaufort ( Beefort )Commune9161,2021,5512,2542,901
Bech Commune7157869461,0781,305
Berdorf ( Bäerdref )Commune8529881,3041,6961,951
Consdorf ( Konsdref )Commune1,1941,4341,7451,8232,123
Echternach ( Iechternach )Commune4,1494,2164,6105,3365,650
Rosport-Mompach ( Rouspert-Mompech )Commune2,1392,2642,8413,1413,631
Waldbillig ( Waldbëlleg )Commune6848441,1371,3421,902
Esch-sur-Alzette ( Esch-Uelzecht )Canton114,483116,501134,674152,479185,184
Bettembourg ( Beetebuerg )Commune7,1318,0209,0639,79011,374
Differdange ( Déifferdeng )Commune16,72615,74018,17221,93527,869
Dudelange ( Diddeleng )Commune14,07214,67417,32018,78121,513
Esch-sur-Alzette ( Esch-Uelzecht )Commune25,14424,01827,14630,12536,228
Frisange ( Fréiseng )Commune1,6882,0532,8783,7504,769
Kayl ( Keel, Käl )Commune6,3546,2927,0507,7679,668
Leudelange ( Leideleng )Commune1,3401,4421,8512,1482,704
Mondercange ( Monnerech )Commune3,9644,9426,0896,2286,982
Pétange ( Péiteng )Commune12,12712,35213,74916,08520,084
Reckange-sur-Mess ( Recken, Reckeng op der Mess )Commune1,4061,5561,7002,1382,634
Roeser ( Réiser )Commune3,0383,4884,4575,3026,560
Rumelange ( Rëmeleng )Commune3,7113,5004,3095,0385,613
Sanem ( Suessem )Commune11,16211,55413,04114,47017,895
Schifflange ( Schëffleng )Commune6,6206,8707,8498,92211,291
Grevenmacher ( Gréiwemaacher )Canton16,40318,15221,65025,59931,378
Betzdorf ( Betzder )Commune1,6541,9872,3693,2364,149
Biwer Commune1,0051,1331,4921,6531,884
Flaxweiler ( Fluessweller )Commune1,0771,1531,4131,7692,158
Grevenmacher ( Gréiwemaacher )Commune2,9963,0293,7344,3684,981
Junglinster ( Jonglënster )Commune3,6574,7725,7536,4828,233
Manternach Commune9481,0231,3221,7612,216
Mertert ( Mäertert )Commune3,0532,9263,2873,8524,703
Wormeldange ( Wuermeldeng, Wormer )Commune2,0132,1292,2802,4783,054
Luxembourg ( Lëtzebuerg )Canton114,225117,471125,019151,592193,509
Bertrange ( Bartreng )Commune4,0004,2285,5146,2138,472
Contern ( Konter )Commune2,2032,5683,0823,4193,968
Hesperange ( Hesper )Commune9,0909,92110,40013,33515,657
Luxembourg ( Lëtzebuerg )Commune78,91275,83376,68895,058124,509
Niederanven ( Nidderaanwen )Commune3,3935,0535,4395,4246,349
Sandweiler Commune2,0282,0202,5773,1373,659
Schuttrange ( Schëtter )Commune1,7382,5033,2583,7214,272
Steinsel ( Steesel )Commune2,4213,5214,4024,7175,500
Strassen ( Stroossen )Commune4,2424,9205,9017,39910,249
Walferdange ( Walfer )Commune5,3005,8196,4377,2408,418
Weiler-la-Tour ( Weiler zum Tuerm )Commune8981,0851,3211,9292,456
Mersch ( Miersch )Canton16,54219,14123,31127,27634,063
Bissen ( Biissen )Commune1,6711,7812,4472,7843,269
Colmar-Berg ( Kolmer-Bierg )Commune1,1761,3851,7111,9192,238
Fischbach ( Fëschbech )Commune4654916358941,238
Heffingen ( Hiefenech )Commune6546848241,0681,520
Helperknapp ( incl. Boevange-sur-Attert, Tuntange )Commune1,7522,1442,7873,3124,538
Larochette ( Fiels )Commune1,2801,2881,7422,0122,220
Lintgen ( Lëntgen )Commune1,6161,8412,2262,6053,235
Lorentzweiler ( Luerenzweiler )Commune2,4482,7732,9733,5314,348
Mersch ( Miersch )Commune4,8175,9707,0127,97310,018
Nommern ( Noumer )Commune6637849541,1781,439
Redange ( Réiden )Canton10,26811,07513,66616,14619,866
Beckerich ( Biekerech )Commune1,4921,6472,0712,2932,784
Ell Commune5595958231,0891,511
Grosbous ( Groussbus )Commune5776237278871,112
Préizerdaul Commune8098871,2441,3921,725
Rambrouch ( Rammerech )Commune2,5402,7413,3323,8984,589
Redange-sur-Attert ( Réiden )Commune1,7011,8502,1772,5642,910
Saeul ( Sëll )Commune426440460673874
Useldange ( Useldeng )Commune1,0401,0841,3011,5371,965
Vichten ( Viichten )Commune5746338319881,360
Wahl ( Wal )Commune5505757008251,036
Remich ( Réimech )Canton11,79412,94916,16419,26423,529
Bous ( Bus )Commune7478331,0911,4031,711
Dalheim ( Duelem )Commune1,2291,4251,7061,9422,358
Lenningen ( Lenneng )Commune9121,0151,1691,6442,071
Mondorf-les-Bains ( Munneref )Commune2,5102,8833,6384,3935,404
Remich ( Réimech )Commune2,3762,5362,8833,3323,787
Schengen ( incl. Burmerange, Wellenstein )Commune2,6022,6623,5814,0934,956
Stadtbredimus ( Stadbriedemes )Commune7548821,2491,5561,968
Waldbredimus ( Waldbriedemes )Commune6647138479011,274
Vianden ( Veianen )Canton3,2773,3333,6454,4285,482
Putscheid ( Pëtscht, Pëtschent )Commune6006577169951,107
Tandel Commune1,1771,1961,4181,7022,214
Vianden ( Veianen, Veinen )Commune1,5001,4801,5111,7312,161
Wiltz ( Wolz )Canton8,9979,59711,70413,83218,197
Boulaide ( Bauschelt )Commune5335937349701,391
Esch-sur-Sûre ( Esch-Sauer incl. Neunhausen, Heiderscheid )Commune1,3921,3991,7142,2012,982
Goesdorf ( Géisdref )Commune6557281,0251,2971,595
Kiischpelt ( Kiischpelt )Commune6197458659991,209
Lac de la Haute-Sûre Commune1,0061,1281,3281,5432,084
Wiltz ( Wolz incl. Eschweiler )Commune4,1914,3625,1765,7587,533
Winseler ( Wanseler )Commune6016428621,0641,403
Luxembourg ( Lëtzebuerg )Grand Duchy364,597384,634439,539512,353634,730

Source: Le Portail des Statistiques du Luxembourg (web).

Flag of Luxembourg

6. The Congress of Vienna declared Luxembourg to be a Grand Duchy in 1815 and gave it to the Netherlands. Belgium gained more than half its physical territory in 1839 but Luxembourg gained more autonomy over its own affairs. The country became fully independent in 1867.

7. The Treaty of London in 1867 ended the fights over the sovereignty of Luxembourg. (The country has such a strategic location it is known as “the heart of Europe”.) It fortifications were to be desolated as a condition of the Treaty. Today the castle ruins and its underground galleries and passages are Luxembourg’s major tourist attraction. Le Bock today is a UNESCO World Heritage site.

8. The Ardennes is a region of steep-sided valleys carved by beautiful rivers and covered in dense forests. Its strategic position made it a battleground over the centuries between European powers and nations seeking to control its position and resources.

9. During the World Wars, the Ardennes was thought to be impenetrable for military traffic and troops and therefore was not well defended. Germany took a gamble and safely used the area as an invasion route into France during World War I. The Battle of the Ardennes was the result in August 1914 during World War I.

10. Germany successfully gambled again during World War II they could move troops and machines successfully through this almost-undefended area, so they used it twice as a route into Southern Belgium and Northern France. Many of the region’s towns suffered great damage during the Battle of France (1940) and the Battle of the Bulge (1944-45).


The native language of the majority of Luxembourgers is Letzebuergesch or Luxembourgisch. This language descends from a Frankish dialect spoken by people who moved into this area between the fourth and sixth centuries A.D. The closest relatives to this language are Flemish, Dutch, and the Plattdeutsch dialects still spoken Germany's Rhineland. Only a few words derive from Celtic tongues exist in Letzebuergesch today. Perhaps the most important retention of Celtic influences are those in the very name of the country and language itself. The presence of French words and phrases is evident in the modern usage of Letzebuergesch, yet French has not had the influence on this language that might have been expected over so many years. Since the year 1830 the two legal languages of Luxembourg have been German and French. It was not until 1984 that Letzebuergesch was actually named the official language of the country. Very little Letzebuergesch has ever been taught in schools, as the language has been mainly learned at home. Although German has been a more popular language within the media, a great many Luxembourgers are wholly conversant in French as well.


In Luxembourgisch the following are equivalent expressions used in daily life: "Good morning/hello" is Moien "Goodbye" is Äddi or a'voir "Thank you (very much)" is Merci ( villmols ) "Sorry" is "Pardon" "Excuse me" is Entschëllegt and "Please" is Wannechglift. The national motto, found everywhere in Luxembourg, is Mir Wöelle Bleiwe Wat Mir Sin, or "We want to remain what we are."

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Luxembourg cuisine is said to combine the finesse of French cooking with the heartiness of German food. More recently, it has been inspired by the cuisine of Italian and Portuguese immigrants. Traditional Luxembourgers consume a small French-style breakfast and large meals at midday and in the evening.

Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Specialties include Judd matt Gaardebou`nen (smoked collar of pork with broad beans), thuringer (small sausages), Luxembourg ham (smoke-cured), friture de la Moselle (small deep-fried river fish), pike in Riesling sauce, gromper keeschelche (potato pancakes), kach keis (soft melted cheese), paté, and quetsche tort (plum tart). Special dishes are consumed on national and religious holidays, as well as on Sunday afternoons. After consuming these large meals, Luxembourgers are fond of taking walks in the country, along well-marked trails.

Well-regarded dry white wine is produced from Reisling grapes grown on the east-facing slopes of the Moselle River, across from Germany. Luxembourg also produces eaux-de-vie , or plum brandies, made from mirabelle (yellow plums) and quetsch (purple plums).

Basic Economy. Luxembourgers have a saying, "Just as Egypt is a gift of the Nile, Luxembourg is a gift of iron." For centuries, the country sat atop a large field of iron ore that contained too much phosphorous to be made into high-quality steel, but in 1877 the British engineer Thomas Gilchrist invented a method of removing phosphorous during the smelting process. Steel production dominated the economy for nearly a century and transformed a very poor, mostly agricultural society into one of the world's wealthiest industrialized countries. At its peak, the steel industry employed one-fourth of the workforce and generated two-thirds of exports, but when world demand for steel plummeted in the 1970s, three-fourths of the steelworkers were laid off. The iron ore fields were closed in 1981, and the surviving steel industry makes specialized products with imported ore.

The loss of the steel industry did not plunge Luxembourg into economic disaster. In the 1970s and 1980s, the country became one of Europe's most important financial services centers. Luxembourg had two hundred thirty-three banks in the 1990s—compared with only seventeen in 1960— as well as seven thousand holding companies and 1,300 investment fund operations. Financial institutions were attracted by the low tax rates and strict privacy laws. Luxembourg also houses a number of European organizations, including the general secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Union's statistical and publications offices and court of justice, the European Investment Bank, and the European Court of Auditors.

Land Tenure and Property. Luxembourgers place a high value on owning property and the protection of private property rights.

Commercial Activities. With the large decline in the steel industry and the growth in financial and European institutions since the 1970s, most citizens are now employed in services. In 1993, 68 percent of the workforce was in services, 29 percent in manufacturing, and 3 percent in agriculture.

Major Industries. The major steel producer Arbed (Acieries Réunies de Burbach-Eich-Dudelange) is a transnational corporation with headquarters in Luxembourg City and factories in seven other countries. Somewhat offsetting the loss of steel jobs, several transnational corporations have built factories. The manufacture of chemicals, rubber, and plastic products has increased.

Trade. Because of its large number of financial services, Luxembourg has a strongly positive international trade balance. Other European Union countries—primarily the three neighboring countries of Belgium, France, and Germany—account for 61 percent of exports and 74 percent of imports.

Division of Labor. One-half of the workers are foreign, about equally divided among immigrants living in the country and commuters from Belgium, France, and Germany. Immigrants hold a large percentage of jobs in construction and minimally skilled services, whereas commuters work in financial services and international institutions.

Luxembourg a land of immigration

Highly appreciated by expatriates who come there to find career opportunities and an excellent quality of life, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is one of the countries recognised as the safest ones in the world. Today, 80% of the population growth is due to immigration. It is mainly a young immigration. See where immigrants settle at first, when they arrive in Luxembourg.

For a long time now, Luxembourg has been a land of welcome for many immigrants who come here to find a job, among other things. It was the Italians who arrived after the Second World War until the mid-sixties. They were followed by the Portuguese, who arrived in Luxembourg in several waves, corresponding to the crises in Partugal: end of the sixties, 1975-1982, 2003-2009. Since 2014, French immigration takes over. In 2019, they represent nearly 15% of migrants.

The cuisine is a fusion of French and German

Luxembourg’s cuisine is heavily influenced by both French and German food traditions. Local delicacies include potato pancakes (gromper keeschelche), plum tart (quetsche tort), and green bean soup with potatoes, bacon and onion (Bouneschlupp). Luxembourg’s national dish of Judd mat Gaardebounen is smoked pork collar soaked in water overnight and boiled with vegetables and spices. It is often served with a side dish of potatoes and broad beans, and a bottle of the beer from Luxembourg, the Diekirch.

Why is Luxembourg so Rich?

These days, almost every country across the globe is suffering shortage in various ways. Hence, for every room, there can be always being an exemption. So, when it comes to shortage or poverty Luxembourg is one of the exemptions.

In fact, there are big countries that are suffering from great poverty and economic crisis compared to small countries such as this country. There is also a saying that the smaller a country is, the smaller the expenses needed for the infrastructure as well as the smaller the population there is. These are the actual fact why Luxembourg is considered as a rich country.

Even if it is a small country, it is also one of the most developed countries that anyone can visit. And because it is small, there are only very roads to be built and very manageable maintenance. Another thing is less population which is known as one of the root causes of poverty in any country.

Once you live in a small rich country, you will be disciplined and determined enough to have not more than two children because your environment is small and that you perfectly know the effects it may cause you and your fellowmen if one among you greatly contribute to the increase of the population in your place. Once the population is just enough and a nation has united communities and organizations, its result of course is a very successful and rich country, and this also greatly explains how people deal with each other in this country. And this is also one main reason why this country is rich.

Most importantly, government officials in this country are investing the country’s money in a smart or wise way. It makes it one of the governments across the globe which is really making money and profit.

Strong support for NATO

When Luxembourg and 11 other states created NATO in 1949, the country counted just under 300,000 citizens. Though much smaller than most of its new Allies, Luxembourg’s population had something that many of its larger counterparts lacked: a near-unanimous consensus to join NATO and play its part in uniting Western Europe in a defensive alliance. All three of Luxembourg’s major political parties supported NATO accession, with only the Communists offering token opposition. Memories of American troops liberating their country from Nazi Germany were still fresh in most people’s minds, and so the vast majority of Luxembourgers were firmly in favour of NATO. As prominent Luxembourg lawyer and businessman, Jean-Claude Worter put it: “Every Luxembourger comprehended and endorsed the new solidarity of our country with its allies, and accepted the economic and military consequences which ensued, both to its profit and at its expense.”

Below is a collection of photos showing Luxembourgers going about their everyday lives in the 1950s. The post-war economy of Luxembourg revolved around agriculture, wine making, the mining of iron ore, and most significantly the production of steel. Before the country became a banking and financial services hub in the 1980s, more than 50 per cent of its labour force worked in the steel industry. When NATO decided to have a purpose-built headquarters – Porte Dauphine – in Paris, Luxembourg provided 3,500 tons of steel for the construction.

Luxembourg steel workers. Until the mid-1970s, the steel industry was Luxembourg’s largest employer, at one point accounting for over 50% of the labour force.

Miner working in iron ore mine in support of the Luxembourg steel industry.

Worker inspects engine. Luxembourg has developed a robust design and manufacturing sector for high technology.

Vineyard worker picking grapes. Luxembourg has a vibrant wine industry in the Moselle Valley.

Men dancing in a Luxembourg town square.

Two young men walking through the countryside.

Luxembourg’s gratitude towards the United States and the European Western Allies persisted throughout the Cold War, providing the rock-solid foundation for its strong support of the Alliance and eagerness to do its bit. In the late 1970s, for example, the Luxembourg government decided to build two gigantic military storage depots, holding 63,000 tons of combat vehicles, machine parts, food, clothing, fuel, and other equipment that the Allies would need in the event of a war. At a public consultation with the local population before construction began, one man wanted to know whether the tanks would make noise at night. He was interrupted by somebody who shouted: '”You found the noise of American tanks sweet enough in 1944”.

The overwhelmingly positive attitude towards NATO since 1949 — and the enduring political consensus in Luxembourg’s various coalition governments — meant that ongoing membership in the Alliance has never come up as a topic of serious political debate. The solidity of public opinion allowed Luxembourg’s political leaders to be tireless proponents not only of the Alliance, but also of further European and Atlantic integration. The father of NATO in Luxembourg, Joseph Bech, was foremost among these champions.


Luxembourg exerts immense media clout and has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences, including those in France, Germany and the UK.

Generations of British listeners grew up with Radio Luxembourg, which beamed pop music programmes into the UK. "The Great 208" is no more, but media group RTL is still a key player in media markets across Europe.

Luxembourg's media empire extends to the skies. It is home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES), which operates the Astra fleet.

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