Interesting

Dragon-turtle Celadon

Dragon-turtle Celadon


Celadon

Celadon is a term for pottery denoting both wares glazed in the jade green celadon color, also known as greenware (the term specialists now tend to use [1] ), and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware, but later used on other porcelains. Celadon originated in China, though the term is purely European, and notable kilns such as the Longquan kiln in Zhejiang province are renowned for their celadon glazes. [2] Celadon production later spread to other parts of East Asia, such as Japan and Korea [3] as well as Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Eventually, European potteries produced some pieces, but it was never a major element there. Finer pieces are in porcelain, but both the color and the glaze can be produced in stoneware and earthenware. Most of the earlier Longquan celadon is on the border of stoneware and porcelain, meeting the Chinese but not the European definitions of porcelain.

For many centuries, celadon wares were highly regarded by the Chinese Imperial court, before being replaced in fashion by painted wares, especially the new blue and white porcelain under the Yuan dynasty. The similarity of the color to jade, traditionally the most highly valued material in China, was a large part of its attraction. Celadon continued to be produced in China at a lower level, often with a conscious sense of reviving older styles. In Korea the celadons produced under the Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392) are regarded as the classic wares of Korean porcelain.

The celadon colour is classically produced by firing a glaze containing a little iron oxide at a high temperature in a reducing kiln. The materials must be refined, as other chemicals can alter the color completely. Too little iron oxide causes a blue colour (sometimes a desired effect), and too much gives olive and finally black the right amount is between 0.75% and 2.5%. The presence of other chemicals may have effects titanium dioxide gives a yellowish tinge. [4] Pieces made with a celadon glaze are themselves often referred to as "celadons".


Celadon

Celadon is a term for pottery denoting both wares glazed in the jade green celadon color, also known as greenware (the term specialists now tend to use [1] ), and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware, but later used on other porcelains. Celadon originated in China, though the term is purely European, and notable kilns such as the Longquan kiln in Zhejiang province are renowned for their celadon glazes. [2] Celadon production later spread to other parts of East Asia, such as Japan and Korea [3] as well as Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Eventually, European potteries produced some pieces, but it was never a major element there. Finer pieces are in porcelain, but both the color and the glaze can be produced in stoneware and earthenware. Most of the earlier Longquan celadon is on the border of stoneware and porcelain, meeting the Chinese but not the European definitions of porcelain.

For many centuries, celadon wares were highly regarded by the Chinese Imperial court, before being replaced in fashion by painted wares, especially the new blue and white porcelain under the Yuan dynasty. The similarity of the color to jade, traditionally the most highly valued material in China, was a large part of its attraction. Celadon continued to be produced in China at a lower level, often with a conscious sense of reviving older styles. In Korea the celadons produced under the Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392) are regarded as the classic wares of Korean porcelain.

The celadon colour is classically produced by firing a glaze containing a little iron oxide at a high temperature in a reducing kiln. The materials must be refined, as other chemicals can alter the color completely. Too little iron oxide causes a blue colour (sometimes a desired effect), and too much gives olive and finally black the right amount is between 0.75% and 2.5%. The presence of other chemicals may have effects titanium dioxide gives a yellowish tinge. [4] Pieces made with a celadon glaze are themselves often referred to as "celadons".

Etymology

The term "celadon" for the pottery's pale jade-green glaze was coined by European connoisseurs of the wares. The most commonly accepted theory is that the term first appeared in France in the 17th century and that it is named after the shepherd Celadon in Honoré d'Urfé's French pastoral romance, L'Astrée (1627), [5] who wore pale green ribbons. (D'Urfe, in turn, borrowed his character from Ovid's Metamorphoses V.210.) Another theory is that the term is a corruption of the name of Saladin (Salah ad-Din), the Ayyubid Sultan, who in 1171 sent forty pieces of the ceramic to Nur ad-Din Zengi, Sultan of Syria. [6] Yet a third theory is that the word derives from the Sanskrit sila and dhara, which mean "green" and "stone" respectively. [ citation needed ]

Production and characteristics

Celadon glaze refers to a family of usually partly transparent but coloured glazes, many with pronounced (and sometimes accentuated) "crackle", or tiny cracks in the glaze produced in a wide variety of colors, generally used on stoneware or porcelain pottery bodies.

So-called "true celadon", which requires a minimum 1,260 °C (2,300 °F) furnace temperature, a preferred range of 1,285 to 1,305 °C (2,345 to 2,381 °F), and firing in a reducing atmosphere, originated at the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127), [7] at least on one strict definition. The unique grey or green celadon glaze is a result of iron oxide's transformation from ferric to ferrous iron (Fe2O3 → FeO) during the firing process. [7] Individual pieces in a single firing can have significantly different colours, from small variations in conditions in different parts of the kiln. Most of the time, green was the desired colour, reminding the Chinese of jade, always the most valued material in Chinese culture.

Celadon glazes can be produced in a variety of colors, including white, grey, blue and yellow, depending on several factors:

  1. the thickness of the applied glaze,
  2. the type of clay to which it is applied,
  3. the exact chemical makeup of the glaze,
  4. the firing temperature
  5. the degree of reduction in the kiln atmosphere and
  6. the degree of opacity in the glaze.

The most famous and desired shades range from a very pale green to deep intense green, often meaning to mimic the green shades of jade. The main color effect is produced by iron oxide in the glaze recipe or clay body. Celadons are almost exclusively fired in a reducing atmosphere kiln as the chemical changes in the iron oxide which accompany depriving it of free oxygen are what produce the desired colors. As with most glazes, crazing (a glaze defect) can occur in the glaze and, if the characteristic is desirable, is referred to as "crackle" glaze.

East Asia

Chinese celadons

Greenwares are found in earthenware from the Shang dynasty onwards. [4] Archaeologist Wang Zhongshu states that shards with a celadon ceramic glaze have been recovered from Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb excavations in Zhejiang, and that this type of ceramic became well known during the Three Kingdoms (220–265). [8] These are now often called proto-celadons, and tend to browns and yellows, without much green.

The earliest major type of celadon was Yue ware, [9] which was succeeded by a number of kilns in north China producing wares known as Northern Celadons, sometimes used by the imperial court. The best known of these is Yaozhou ware. [10] All these types were already widely exported to the rest of East Asia and the Islamic world.

Longquan celadon wares, were first made during the Northern Song, but flourished under the Southern Song, as the capital moved to the south and the northern kilns declined. [11] This had bluish, blue-green, and olive green glazes and the bodies increasingly had high silica and alkali contents which resembled later porcelain wares made at Jingdezhen and Dehua rather than stonewares. [12]

All the wares mentioned above were mostly in, or aiming to be in, some shade of green. Other wares which can be classified as celadons, were more often in shades of pale blue, very highly valued by the Chinese, or various browns and off-whites. These were often the most highly regarded at the time and by later Chinese connoisseurs, and sometimes made more or less exclusively for the court. These include Ru ware, Guan ware and Ge ware, [13] as well as earlier types such as the "secret colour" (mi se) wares, [14] finally identified when the crypt at the Famen Temple was opened.

Large quantities of Longquan celadon were exported throughout East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East in the 13th–15th century. Large celadon dishes were especially welcomed in Islamic nations. Since about 1420 the Counts of Katzenelnbogen have owned the oldest European import of celadon, reaching Europe indirectly via the Islamic world. This is a cup mounted in metal in Europe, and exhibited in Kassel in the Landesmuseum. [15] After the development of blue and white porcelain in Jingdezhen ware in the early 14th century, celadon gradually went out of fashion in both Chinese and export markets, and after about 1500 both the quality and quantity of production was much reduced, though there were some antiquarian revivals of celadon glazes on Jingdezhen porcelain in later centuries. [16]

Decoration in Chinese celadons is normally only by shaping the body or creating shallow designs on the flat surface which allow the glaze to pool in depressions, giving a much deeper colour to accentuate the design. In both methods carving, moulding and a range of other techniques may be used. There is very rarely any contrast with a completely different colour, except where parts of a piece are sometimes left as unglazed biscuit in Longquan celadon.

Japanese celadons

The Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese characters for greenware is seiji ( 青磁 ) . It was introduced during the Song Dynasty (960–1270) from China and via Korea. Even though Japan has arguably the most diverse styles of ceramic art in the modern era, greenware was mostly avoided by potters because of the high loss rate of up to 80%. [17] Kaolinite, the ceramic material usually used for the production of porcelain, also does not exist in large quantities like in China. One of the sources for kaolin in Japan is from Amakusa in Kyushu. Nevertheless a number of artists emerged whose works received critical acclaim in regards to the quality and colour of the glazes achieved, as well as later on in the innovation of modern design.

Three pieces originally from China have been registered by the government as national treasures. They are two flower vases from the Longquan kiln dating to the southern Song dynasty in the 13th century, and a flower vase with iron brown spots also from Longquan kiln dating to the Yuan dynasty in the 13–14th century.

Production in the style of Longquan was centred around Arita, Saga and in the Saga Domain under the lords of the Nabeshima clan. [18] Greenware is also closed entwined with hakuji ( 白磁 ) white porcelain. The glaze with a mixed subtle colour gradations of icy, bluish white is called seihakuji (青白磁) porcelain. [19] In Chinese this type of glaze is known as Qingbai ware. [20] Qingbai's history goes back to the Song dynasty. It is biscuit-fired and painted with a glaze containing small amounts of iron. This turns a bluish colour when fired again. Japanese artists and clients tend to favour the seihakuji bluish white glaze over the completely green glaze. [18]

Pieces that are produced are normally tea or rice bowls, sake cups, vases, and plates, and mizusashi water jars for tea ceremony, censers and boxes. Some post-modern ceramic artists have however expanded into the area of sculpture and abstract art as well.

Artists from the early Showa era are Itaya Hazan (1872–1963), Tomimoto Kenkichi (1886–1963), Kato Hajme (1900–1968), Tsukamoto Kaiji ( 塚本快示 ) (1912–1990), and Okabe Mineo (1919–1990), who specialized in Guan ware with its crackled glaze. Tsukamoto Kaiji was nominated a Living National Treasure in 1983 for his works in seihakuji. Artists from the mid- to late Showa era were Shimizu Uichi (1926–?), who also specialized in crackled glaze, Suzuki Osamu (1926-2001), Miura Koheiji (1933-?), [17] Suzuki Sansei (b. 1936), Fukami Sueharu (b. 1947), and Takenaka Ko (b. 1941). During the Heisei era artists are Masamichi Yoshikawa (b. 1946), [21] Kawase Shinobu (b. 1950), [22] Minegishi Seiko (b. 1952), [23] Kubota Atsuko (b. 1953), Yagi Akira (b. 1955) and Kato Tsubusa ( 加藤委 ) (b. 1962).

Artists such as Fukami Sueharu, Masamichi Yoshikawa, and Kato Tsubusa also produce abstract pieces, and their works are part of a number of national and international museum collections. [24] Kato Tsubusa works with kaolin from New Zealand. [25]

Korean celadons

Chinese greenwares were very popular imports to Korea, and inspired local potters. Exceptional high-quality celadons were produced in Korea during the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties. [26] An inlaid greenware technique known as sanggam, where potters would engrave semi-dried pottery with designs and place black or white clay materials within the engraving, was invented in Korea during this time. [26] [27] [28]

Korean greenware, also known as "Goryeo celadon" is usually a pale green-blue in color. The glaze was developed and refined during the 10th and 11th centuries during the Goryeo period, from which it derives its name. Korean greenware reached its zenith between the 12th and early 13th centuries, however, the Mongol invasions of Korea in the 13th century and persecution by the Joseon Dynasty government destroyed the craft. [ citation needed ]

The Gangjin Kiln Sites produced a large number of Goryeo wares and were a complex of 188 kilns. The kiln sites are located in Gangjin-gun, Jeollanam-do near the sea. Mountains in the north provided the necessary raw materials such as firewood, kaolinite, and silicon dioxide for the master potters while a well established system of distribution transported pottery throughout Korea and facilitated export to China and Japan. The sites are tentatively listed as a World Heritage by the South Korean government. Celadon was used as a "spirit vessel" or Chy- Tang to summon spirits to bring positivity, in many Korean temples from the 14th century.

Traditional Korean greenware has distinctive decorative elements. The most distinctive are decorated by overlaying glaze on contrasting clay bodies. With inlaid designs, known as sanggam in Korean, small pieces of colored clay are inlaid in the base clay. Carved or slip-carved designs require layers of a different colored clay adhered to the base clay of the piece. The layers are then carved away to reveal the varying colors.

A number of items dating from the Goryeo dynasty have been registered by the government as a National Treasure of South Korea, such as a Dragon kettle from the 12th century (National Treasure No. 61), a maebyeong vase with sanggam engraved cranes (National Treasure No. 68), an elaborate censer with kingfisher glaze (National Treasure No. 95), and a pitcher in the shape of a Dragon Turtle (National Treasure No. 96).

Beginning in the early 20th century, potters, using modern materials and tools, attempted to recreate the techniques of ancient Korean Goyeo celadons. Playing a leading role in its revival was Yu Geun-Hyeong (유근형 柳根瀅), a Living National Treasure whose work was documented in the 1979 short film, Koryo Celadon. Another notable potter and Living National Treasure was Ji Suntaku (1912–1993). Today, hundreds of potters showcase their work at the Icheon Ceramics Village, which features contemporary work from Sugwang-ri, Sindun-myeon, and Saeum-dong in the city of Icheon. [29]

The National Museum of Korea in Seoul houses important celadon works and national treasures. The Haegang Ceramics Museum and the Goryeo Celadon Museum are two regional museums that focus on Korean greenware.

Southeast Asia

Thai celadon

Thai ceramics has its own tradition of greenware production. Medieval Thai wares were initially influenced by Chinese greenware, but went on to develop its own unique style and technique. One of the most famous kilns during the Sukhothai Kingdom were at S(r)i Satchanalai, around Si Satchanalai District and Sawankhalok District in Sukhothai Province, north-central Thailand. Production started in the 13th century CE and continued until the 16th century. The art reached its apex in the 14th century. [30]

Vietnamese celadon

Others

Outside of East Asia a number of artists also worked with greenware to varying degrees of success in regards to purity and quality. These include Thomas Bezanson of Weston Priory and Wanda Golakowska (1901–1975) of Poland, whose works are part of the collection of the National Museum, Warsaw and National Museum, Kraków.


Most old Chinese coins have an inscription of four Chinese characters to identify the historical time of their casting and their monetary value.

Most Chinese charms also have four (or more) Chinese character inscriptions but the inscription is not meant to identify when the charm was made or its monetary value (which is none). Instead, the inscription is either an auspicious desire, such as for good luck, good fortune, good health, success in the imperial examinations or business, etc., or a wish to avert misfortune from evil ghosts and spirits.

More importantly, and unlike Chinese coins, most Chinese charms also depict a variety of objects meant to enhance the inscriptions with rich symbolic meanings.

Visual and Spoken Puns

One of the peculiarities of the Chinese language is that it has a very large number of written characters but a much smaller number of spoken sounds. As a result, many Chinese characters share the same pronunciation, i.e. are homonyms.

The charms of the Ming (1368 - 1644 AD) and Qing (Ch'ing) (1644 - 1911 AD) dynasties, in particular, frequently took advantage of this characteristic. The charms may use depictions of animals, plants and other objects to substitute for other words because of their similarity in pronunciation, even though they may not have any other relationship to what is being expressed. This is what I mean by a hidden or implied meaning or visual pun, and what the Chinese refer to as auspicious or lucky pictures ( jixiangtuan 吉图 案). A more technical term would be a rebus.

Chinese Symbols and Their Meanings

2) Lu Dongbin (吕 洞宾), known for his drinking and fighting abilities, carries a demon-slaying sword. He also carries a fly whisk which he uses to walk on clouds, fly to heaven, and sweep away ignorance. (See Lu Dongbin Charm.)

3) Zhang Guolao (张果老) rides a donkey, sometimes seated backwards, and carries a tube-shaped bamboo musical instrument called a yugu (鱼鼓).

4) Li Tieguai (李 铁拐), known as "Li with the iron crutch", is a crippled beggar who carries a gourd filled with a magic elixir.

5) He Xiangu (何仙姑) is the only female in the group and usually carries a kitchen ladle, lotus, peach or fly whisk. She is known for her filial devotion, ability to resolve domestic disputes and is seen as the patron of household management.

6) Han Xiangzi (韩湘子) carries a flute and can predict the future and make fruits and flowers grow out of season. He represents youth and is seen as the patron of fortune-tellers.

7) Cao Guojiu (曹国舅) carries a ruyi sceptre or castanets which are two long "clappers" thought to symbolize the ceremonial tables required for admission to the imperial court. How he became an immortal is described in the Ming Dynasty novel "Journey to the West".


Dragon-turtle Celadon - History

''Celadon'' is a term for pottery denoting both wares glazed in the jade green celadon color, also known as greenware (the term specialists now tend to use), and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware, but later used on other porcelains. Celadon originated in China, though the term is purely European, and notable kilns such as the Longquan kiln in Zhejiang province are renowned for their celadon glazes. Celadon production later spread to other parts of East Asia, such as Japan and Korea as well as Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand. Eventually, European potteries produced some pieces, but it was never a major element there. Finer pieces are in porcelain, but both the color and the glaze can be produced in stoneware and earthenware. Most of the earlier Longquan celadon is on the border of stoneware and porcelain, meeting the Chinese but not the European definitions of porcelain. For many centuries, celadon wares were highly regarded by the Chinese Imperial court, before being replaced in fashion by painted wares, especially the new blue and white porcelain under the Yuan dynasty. The similarity of the color to jade, traditionally the most highly valued material in China, was a large part of its attraction. Celadon continued to be produced in China at a lower level, often with a conscious sense of reviving older styles. In Korea the celadons produced under the Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392) are regarded as the classic wares of Korean porcelain. The celadon colour is classically produced by firing a glaze containing a little iron oxide at a high temperature in a reducing kiln. The materials must be refined, as other chemicals can alter the color completely. Too little iron oxide causes a blue colour (sometimes a desired effect), and too much gives olive and finally black the right amount is between 0.75% and 2.5%. The presence of other chemicals may have effects titanium dioxide gives a yellowish tinge. Vainker, S.J., ''Chinese Pottery and Porcelain'', 1991, British Museum Press, 9780714114705, pp. 53–55 Pieces made with a celadon glaze are themselves often referred to as "celadons".

Production and characteristics

Celadon glaze refers to a family of usually partly transparent but coloured glazes, many with pronounced (and sometimes accentuated) "crackle", or tiny cracks in the glaze produced in a wide variety of colors, generally used on stoneware or porcelain pottery bodies. So-called "true celadon", which requires a minimum furnace temperature, a preferred range of , and firing in a reducing atmosphere, originated at the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127), Dewar, Richard. (2002). ''Stoneware''. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. , p. 42. at least on one strict definition. The unique grey or green celadon glaze is a result of iron oxide's transformation from ferric to ferrous iron (Fe2O3 → FeO) during the firing process. Individual pieces in a single firing can have significantly different colours, from small variations in conditions in different parts of the kiln. Most of the time, green was the desired colour, reminding the Chinese of jade, always the most valued material in Chinese culture. Celadon glazes can be produced in a variety of colors, including white, grey, blue and yellow, depending on several factors: # the thickness of the applied glaze, # the type of clay to which it is applied, # the exact chemical makeup of the glaze, # the firing temperature # the degree of reduction in the kiln atmosphere and # the degree of opacity in the glaze. The most famous and desired shades range from a very pale green to deep intense green, often meaning to mimic the green shades of jade. The main color effect is produced by iron oxide in the glaze recipe or clay body. Celadons are almost exclusively fired in a reducing atmosphere kiln as the chemical changes in the iron oxide which accompany depriving it of free oxygen are what produce the desired colors. As with most glazes, crazing (a glaze defect) can occur in the glaze and, if the characteristic is desirable, is referred to as "crackle" glaze.

The Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese characters for greenware is . It was introduced during the Song Dynasty (960–1270) from China and via Korea. Even though Japan has arguably the most diverse styles of ceramic art in the modern era, greenware was mostly avoided by potters because of the high loss rate of up to 80%. Kaolinite, the ceramic material usually used for the production of porcelain, also does not exist in large quantities like in China. One of the sources for kaolin in Japan is from Amakusa in Kyushu. Nevertheless a number of artists emerged whose works received critical acclaim in regards to the quality and colour of the glazes achieved, as well as later on in the innovation of modern design. Three pieces originally from China have been registered by the government as a national treasures. They are two flower vases from the Longquan kiln dating to the southern Song dynasty in the 13th century, and a flower vase with iron brown spots also from Longquan kiln dating to the Yuan dynasty in the 13–14th century. Production in the style of Longquan was centred around Arita, Saga and in the Saga Domain under the lords of the Nabeshima clan. Greenware is also closed entwined with white porcelain. The glaze with a mixed subtle colour gradations of icy, bluish white is called ''seihakuji'' (青白磁) porcelain. In Chinese this type of glaze is known as Qingbai ware. Qingbai's history goes back to the Song dynasty. It is biscuit-fired and painted with a glaze containing small amounts of iron. This turns a bluish colour when fired again. Japanese artists and clients tend to favour the ''seihakuji'' bluish white glaze over the completely green glaze. Pieces that are produced are normally tea or rice bowls, ''sake'' cups, vases, and plates, and ''mizusashi'' water jars for tea ceremony, censers and boxes. Some post-modern ceramic artists have however expanded into the area of sculpture and abstract art as well. Artists from the early Showa era are Itaya Hazan (1872–1963), Tomimoto Kenkichi (1886–1963), Kato Hajme (1900–1968), (1912–1990), and Okabe Mineo (1919–1990), who specialized in Guan ware with its crackled glaze. Tsukamoto Kaiji was nominated a Living National Treasure in 1983 for his works in ''seihakuji''. Artists from the mid- to late Showa era were Shimizu Uichi (1926–?), who also specialized in crackled glaze, Suzuki Osamu (1926-2001), Miura Koheiji (1933-?), Suzuki Sansei (b. 1936), Fukami Sueharu (b. 1947), and Takenaka Ko (b. 1941). During the Heisei era artists are Masamichi Yoshikawa (b. 1946), Kawase Shinobu (b. 1950), Minegishi Seiko (b. 1952), Kubota Atsuko (b. 1953), Yagi Akira (b. 1955) and (b. 1962). Artists such as Fukami Sueharu, Masamichi Yoshikawa, and Kato Tsubusa also produce abstract pieces, and their works are part of a number of national and international museum collections. Kato Tsubusa works with kaolin from New Zealand.

Chinese greenwares were very popular imports to Korea, and inspired local potters. Exceptional high-quality celadons were produced in Korea during the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties. An inlaid greenware technique known as ''sanggam'', where potters would engrave semi-dried pottery with designs and place black or white clay materials within the engraving, was invented in Korea during this time. Korean greenware, also known as "Goryeo celadon" is usually a pale green-blue in color. The glaze was developed and refined during the 10th and 11th centuries during the Goryeo period, from which it derives its name. Korean greenware reached its zenith between the 12th and early 13th centuries, however, the Mongol invasions of Korea in the 13th century and persecution by the Joseon Dynasty government destroyed the craft. The Gangjin Kiln Sites produced a large number of Goryeo wares and were a complex of 188 kilns. The kiln sites are located in Gangjin-gun, Jeollanam-do near the sea. Mountains in the north provided the necessary raw materials such as firewood, kaolinite, and silicon dioxide for the master potters while a well established system of distribution transported pottery throughout Korea and facilitated export to China and Japan. The sites are tentatively listed as a World Heritage by the South Korean government. Celadon was used as a "spirit vessel" or Chy- Tang to summon spirits to bring positivity, in many Korean temples from the 14th century. Traditional Korean greenware has distinctive decorative elements. The most distinctive are decorated by overlaying glaze on contrasting clay bodies. With inlaid designs, known as ''sanggam'' in Korean, small pieces of colored clay are inlaid in the base clay. Carved or slip-carved designs require layers of a different colored clay adhered to the base clay of the piece. The layers are then carved away to reveal the varying colors. A number of items dating from the Goryeo dynasty have been registered by the government as a National Treasure of South Korea, such as a Dragon kettle from the 12th century (National Treasure No. 61), a ''maebyeong'' vase with ''sanggam'' engraved cranes (National Treasure No. 68), an elaborate censer with kingfisher glaze (National Treasure No. 95), and a pitcher in the shape of a Dragon Turtle (National Treasure No. 96). Beginning in the early 20th century, potters, using modern materials and tools, attempted to recreate the techniques of ancient Korean Goyeo celadons. Playing a leading role in its revival was Yu Geun-Hyeong (유근형 柳根瀅), a Living National Treasure whose work was documented in the 1979 short film, Koryo Celadon. Another notable potter and Living National Treasure was Ji Suntaku (1912–1993). Today, hundreds of potters showcase their work at the Icheon Ceramics Village, which features contemporary work from Sugwang-ri, Sindun-myeon, and Saeum-dong in the city of Icheon. The National Museum of Korea in Seoul houses important celadon works and national treasures. The Haegang Ceramics Museum and the Goryeo Celadon Museum are two regional museums that focus on Korean greenware. File:청자 어룡 모양 주전자.jpg|Dragon kettle, Goryeo dynasty, 12th century (National Treasure No. 61) File:Goryeo_Celadon.jpg|''Maebyeong'' vase with ''sanggam'' engraved cranes, Goryeo dynasty, (National Treasure No. 68) File:청자_거북이_모양_주자.jpg|Pitcher in the shape of a Dragon Turtle, Goryeo dynasty, (National Treasure No. 96) File:청자 유개항아리.jpg|Lidded Jar, Joseon dynasty (National Treasure No. 1071)

Thai ceramics has its own tradition of greenware production. Medieval Thai wares were initially influenced by Chinese greenware, but went on to develop its own unique style and technique. One of the most famous kilns during the Sukhothai Kingdom were at S(r)i Satchanalai, around Si Satchanalai District and Sawankhalok District in Sukhothai Province, north-central Thailand. Production started in the 13th century CE and continued until the 16th century. The art reached its apex in the 14th century. Roxanna M. Brown: ''The Sukhothai and Sawankhalok Kilns''. In: Dies.: ''The Ceramics of South-East Asia: Their Dating and Identification''. 2nd edition. Art Media Resources, Chicago, 2000, , S. 56-80. File:Bowl with Incised Peony Designs LACMA AC1997.252.1.jpg|Bowl with incised peony designs, Sri Satchanalai, 15th century File:Bottle with Two Shoulder Lugs LACMA M.84.213.59.jpg|Bottle with two shoulder lugs, Sawankhalok, 15th century

File:Teapot, crackled white glaze ceramic - Lý dynasty, 11th-12th century AD - Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts - Hanoi, Vietnam - DSC05394.JPG|Teapot, Lý dynasty period, 11th-12th century File:MET 1996 476 O1.jpg|Tea cup, Lý dynasty period, 11th-12th century File:Vietnam 14th C - Celadon jar Museum of Asian Civilisation.jpg|Green celadon jar, Trần dynasty period, 14th century

Outside of East Asia a number of artists also worked with greenware to varying degrees of success in regards to purity and quality. These include Thomas Bezanson of Weston Priory and Wanda Golakowska (1901–1975) of Poland, whose works are part of the collection of the National Museum, Warsaw and National Museum, Kraków.

*Gompertz, G. St. G. M., ''Chinese Celadon Wares'', 1980 (2nd ed.), Faber & Faber, .


Chinese celadons [ edit ]


Greenwares are found in earthenware from the Shang dynasty onwards. [4] Archaeologist Wang Zhongshu states that shards with a celadon ceramic glaze have been recovered from Eastern Han Dynasty (25� AD) tomb excavations in Zhejiang, and that this type of ceramic became well known during the Three Kingdoms (220�). [8] These are now often called proto-celadons, and tend to browns and yellows, without much green.

The earliest major type of celadon was Yue ware, [9] which was succeeded by a number of kilns in north China producing wares known as Northern Celadons, sometimes used by the imperial court. The best known of these is Yaozhou ware. [10] All these types were already widely exported to the rest of East Asia and the Islamic world.

Longquan celadon wares, were first made during the Northern Song, but flourished under the Southern Song, as the capital moved to the south and the northern kilns declined. [11] This had bluish, blue-green, and olive green glazes and the bodies increasingly had high silica and alkali contents which resembled later porcelain wares made at Jingdezhen and Dehua rather than stonewares. [12]

All the wares mentioned above were mostly in, or aiming to be in, some shade of green. Other wares which can be classified as celadons, were more often in shades of pale blue, very highly valued by the Chinese, or various browns and off-whites. These were often the most highly regarded at the time and by later Chinese connoisseurs, and sometimes made more or less exclusively for the court. These include Ru ware, Guan ware and Ge ware, [13] as well as earlier types such as the "secret colour" (mi se) wares, [14] finally identified when the crypt at the Famen Temple was opened.

Large quantities of Longquan celadon were exported throughout East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East in the 13th-15th century. Large celadon dishes were especially welcomed in Islamic nations. Since about 1420 the Counts of Katzenelnbogen have owned the oldest European import of celadon, reaching Europe indirectly via the Islamic world. This is a cup mounted in metal in Europe, and exhibited in Kassel in the Landesmuseum. [15] After the development of blue and white porcelain in Jingdezhen ware in the early 14th century, celadon gradually went out of fashion in both Chinese and export markets, and after about 1500 both the quality and quantity of production was much reduced, though there were some antiquarian revivals of celadon glazes on Jingdezhen porcelain in later centuries. [16]

Decoration in Chinese celadons is normally only by shaping the body or creating shallow designs on the flat surface which allow the glaze to pool in depressions, giving a much deeper colour to accentuate the design. In both methods carving, moulding and a range of other techniques may be used. There is very rarely any contrast with a completely different colour, except where parts of a piece are sometimes left as unglazed biscuit in Longquan celadon.


Dragon-turtle Celadon - History

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Top Quality Satsuma Insence Burner Meiji Period, 19th Century.

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Chinese Minq Dynasty Brass Engraved Censer Insence Burner.

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Kodo Incense Burning Fragrant Wood Kodo Monko Buddhist Insence Piece Of Wood 05

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Antique Bronze Unicorn Luduan Censer 7 Qing Statue Insence Burner Ornate Figure

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Insence By Givenchy Edt 100 Ml Spray

Rare Chinese - $250.00

Rare Chinese Export Miniature Small Candle Stick Insence Holder And A Cup. 18thc

1800's Bronze - $200.00

1800's Bronze Chinese Sculpture Crane On Dragon Turtle Insence Holder

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Buddhism Tibetan Antique Buddhist Brass Butter Lamps Insence Holder Nepal

Very Old - $150.00

Very Old Excellet Byzintine Brozne Bird For Insence Burner

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Small 19th C Antique Japanese Imari Koro Insence Burner 12cm / 4.8 Inch

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Antique Japanese Imari Koro Insence Burner 19th C 14 Cm / 5.6 Inch

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Chinese Boxwood Carved Insence Stick Cones Burner Holder Box Ash Catcher

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Rylee Insence Brown Canvas Leather Sandals Lace Up Buckle 880 36

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A Chinese - $129.00

A Chinese Bronze Censer Insence Burner With Foo Dog Finial And Mark To Base

Kwo Red - $119.88

Kwo Red Basket Trader German Wood Insence Smoker Smk210x69 + Original Box - New

Antique Chinese - $112.50

Antique Chinese Cast Buddha Censor Insence Burner Nice

Kodo Incense - $112.00

Kodo Incense Burning Fragrant Wood Kodo Monko Buddhist Insence Piece Of Wood 06

Premium Meditation - $110.00

Premium Meditation Insence Chim Hyang Agilawood Traditional Medical 70 Sticks

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Beautiful Rare - £75.00

Beautiful Rare Post Medieval Islamic Insence Pot In A1 Condition L74a

Large Ornate - CAD $125.00

Large Ornate Complete Solid Brass Antique/vintage Insence Oil Burner Lamp

Brass Carved - $99.00

Brass Carved Thatched Cottage Statue Insence Burner Tea Zen Decor

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A Beautiful Unusual Chinese Bronze Censer Insence Burner 11 Tall

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Ayurvedic Steel Internal Copper Water Jug ​​set 2 Glasses Free 4 Insence Cone

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Singh Lion Design Brass Insence Stick Holder Stand Ash Catcher Made In Japan

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Lovely Silver 17 Hundreds Church Insence Lid. Please Read Description. L11r

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Imperial Jingdezhen Porcelain Collector's Plate Woman Reading Insence Burning


BODHIDARMA RIDING ON WAVES.

Late 19th-early 20th century, China. Nephrite: light greenish-gray. An Indian Buddhist who came to China in the sixth century a.d., during the formative years of Chinese Buddhism, Bodhidarma’s life, legend, and influence upon East Asian religion have been the subject of many books. The twenty-eighth and last patriarch of the Indian Buddhist school, he became known as the first Chinese Buddhist Patriarch, and the founder of Chan, or Zen, Buddhism. One of the favorite images in East Asian religious art, this religious leader appears in a variety of situations based on both his actual biography and on the legends which have built up about him. Bodhidarma, or “Damo”, as he is known in Chinese (“Daruma” in Japanese) often is portrayed in his role as patriarch, accepting disciples or handing over the reins of religious leadership to the next generation. Another common pose finds him sitting in meditation, directly facing the viewer or – reflecting the physical circumstances of a popular legend – turned to face a cave wall in meditation, a practice he is said to have continued for nine years. This jade sculpture portrays the famous figure in one of the popular legendary scenes associated with his life, that’s titled “Bodhidarma Crossing the Yangtze on a Reed”. Said to date back to the 13th century, this theme has been represented in diverse media, including Dehua ceramics, textiles, paintings, and hardstones (Fontein, #22, pp. 53-6). At times, as here, the reed is absent, and the patriarch seems to skim across the roiling waves directly and with the greatest of ease, his movement conveyed by his robes sweeping off to one side. Whatever the pose or situation, there are certain factors related to physiognomy and body type which are routinely associated with Bodhidarma in the art of later periods. The patriarch, being of lndian origin, usually is given a non-Chinese appearance including a heavy, jowly face with a low stubble or shaped short beard and elongate earlobes (a feature borrowed from images of the Buddha) from which large loop earrings may be suspended. Protruding, staring eyes are set deeply under heavy eyebrows, and the relatively squat, often hairy-torsoed, body is enveloped in a full robe which may be extended to cover his head. The imposing head may be either partially (as here) or fully shaved. The facial expression varies only slightly, from introspective to “truculent” (Fontein, p. 51), and at no time is the figure physically attractive, although his powerful personality is conveyed convincingly. Associated attributes may include discarded straw sandals, rush mats, rosary beads, or bowing acolytes. In this slightly polished, flat-based and uniformly-toned jade portrayal of Bodhidarma, the severe-looking figure skims across the carefully delineated roiling waves. To convey motion and weight, the jade carver has undercut the waves and robe deeply. The relatively slim figure (a Chinese mode adopted in Ming and Qing art, including Dehua porcelain portrayals: Scott, p. 68, #38 Chait, p. 3) stands securely on the waves, his arms folded under the robe, and his face staring out at the viewer. Facial features are clearly and crisply depicted, and there is extensive drill work used to portray the curling locks rimming the ear and neck. Reference: The Yangtze River Collection, Later Chinese Jades published by Helga Wall-Apelt, 1993. SIZE: 10.5″ x 3.25″ x 2.75″. (26.7 x 8.3 x 7 cm.) CONDITION: Very good. 9-95002 (5,000-7,000) – Lot 6


2/15/2006

Roof Dragon of Stone, Temple Gokuraku-Ji
Nr. 2 of the Shikoku Pillgrimage

This area is famous for its stone masonry.
Look at more photos from the temple.

Roof Dragon of GokuRakuAn, Okayama, Japan
極楽庵の屋根の龍

Clappers

Clappers from the Temple Raikyuu-Ji
Takahashi, Okayama Pref.

They are usually made of a hard wood (kashi wood) and used to announce various ceremonies. They are nicely polished and have a great shine.

There are two kinds of clappers, Hyôshigi (22 and 23) in use in a Zen monastery. They are solid pieces of hard wood:
the larger ones may be somewhat longer than one foot in length and the smaller ones about half a foot.
The latter are used in the Zendo while the former are used outside, for instance, when the monks are about to eat, when the bath is ready, and on other occasions.

Look at a great page with more examples of

The Sound Instruments in the Zen Monastery (Daruma Library)


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A Chinese bronze spear

The spear of elegant elongated diamond form and of lenticular section. Fitted stand. Origin: China Period: Warring States (475-221 BC) Sizes: .

A small Chinese bronze axe head

Of lenticular spreading form, the surface is left plain except for a geometric line close to the attachment side. With a fitted stand Origin: Chi.

A Chinese bronze cheek bit

The bit is cast in two linked parts with rings for the guide reins, the shafts are decorated with raised nodes. Origin: China Period: Eastern Zh.

A pair of Chinese bronze axle caps

Each cylindrical cap is decorated in low relief with a cast design of scrolling mythical beast, the lynchpin with a beast head finial. Origin: Ch.

A Chinese bronze axle cap

Of tapered form, decorated to the end with two pairs of raised nodes and two loops, the walls tapering to a square section fitting. With a fitted .

A pair of Chinese bronze horse accessories

Each a cheek bits for the attachment of leather straps, cast of circular form with three equally-spaced mask decorations.Origin: ChinaPeriod: West.

Two Chinese bronze harness buttons

Each of circular form with a central fishtail protrusion for attachment.Origin: ChinaPeriod: Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-24 AD)Sizes: 6.50 cm. dia.

A Chinese bronze ladle

The ladle is modelled with a shaped spoon, and is connected to a handle mount of lenticular section.Origin: ChinaPeriod: Western Han Dynasty (206 .

Two Chinese gilt bronze taotie masks

Each mask is delicately modelled as the head of a taotie and is connected to a circular ring for suspension.Origin: ChinaPeriod: Western Han Dynas.

A Chinese bronze bell shaped harness ornament

The ornament is modelled as a five-lobed prunus flower with a central aperture.Origin: ChinaPeriod: Liao dynasty (907-1125)Sizes: 12.50 cm. diamet.

A Chinese bronze axe head

The axe head is of rounded section and the axe head is slightly tapered to the waist and rounded at the tip.Origin: ChinaPeriod: Shang dynasty (16.

A Chinese silvery bronze 'TLV' circular mirror

The mirror is crisply cast, the central knob within a square border of twelve small nodes separating the twelve branches of the Chinese cyclical c.

A set of nine Chinese bronze carriage bells

The bells of various sizes, cast of lenticular section with a concave lower rim, each surface with a different design in relief.Origin: ChinaPerio.

A group of six Chinese bronze mirrors

The group comprises: a round mirror decorated in relief with a geometric design, a round mirror decorated with a trellis design, three round mirro.

A Chinese bell shaped harness ornament

The ornament is modelled as a five-lobed prunus flower with a central aperture, the surface is chased with a flowerhead surrounded by leafy scroll.

A Chinese bronze spade shaped carriage ornament

The flattened section is moulded as a spade with a concave edge, the surface with low raised ridges.Fitted standOrigin: ChinaPeriod: Western Han D.

A Chinese bronze dagger-axe blade, ge

Of typical tapering curved form, with a straight protrusion for hafting.Origin: ChinaPeriod: Warring States Period (475-221 BC)Sizes: 22.00 cm. W8.

A pair of Chinese bronze taotie mask fittings with loose-ring handles

Each handle is cast in the shape of a taotie mask holding a ring handle. The facial details are finely modelled with delicate detail. Mounted on a.

A Tibetan gilt bronze bodhisattva

The bodhisattva is modelled with a cold-painted gilt face and blue pigment hair. She holds one hand up in vitarka mudra and the other in varada mu.

A Chinese gilt laquered bronze Guanyin

The deity is cast smiling with a serene expression on her face, her hair is piled high on her head which is held by an elaborate crown centered by.

A Chinese parcel-gilt bronze tripod vessel and cover, He

The vessel is decorated with a single handle shaped as a dragon head and a straight spout decorated with a raised rib decoration. The shoulder is .

A Chinese inscribed bronze sword

The sword is of typical tapering form, with one side inscribed with four characters in archaistic script. The handle is decorated with two raised .

A Chinese gilt lacquered bronze figure of Guandi

The figure is cast seated wearing armour and a celestial scarf. One hand rests on his hip and the other hand is held up and pointing across his bo.

A Chinese bronze candle holder

The vessel is fashioned with an everted drip pan, a bulbous middle section and a bell-shaped foot. The exterior is decorated with archaistic desig.

A large pair of Chinese gilt bronze archaistic square-section flaring vases, gu

Each vase is cast in in fine detail with archaistic decoration, with flanges to the edges and stylised lappet and tactile motifs on the sidesOrigi.

A Chinese archaistic bronze square section vase, fanggu

The vase is decorated to the four corners with raised flanges, the body is decorated with taotie masks and stiff leaves. The fanggu stands on a se.

A Chinese bronze ‘qilin’ censer

The mythical beast is modelled recumbent with its legs tucked next to its body and forelegs in front. Its head is raised and turned to the back an.

A Chinese white jade 'dragon' plaque

Thr plaque is carved with a striding dragon amongst cloud scrolls. The jade is of an even white tone.Origin: ChinaPeriod: 19th-20th centurySizes: .

A Chinese white and russet jade archers ring

The ring is carved with a flattened edge. The exterior is carved with a network pattern of raised nodes. The stone is of a pale tone with darker i.

A Chinese pale celadon jade 'boy and lingzhi' carving

The piece is carved in the round with a smiling boy clutching a long spring of lingzhi next to his body.Origin: ChinaPeriod: 20th centurySizes: 2.

A Chinese white and russet jade 'birds' openwork carving

The oval plaque is carved to the foreground with three birds amongst flowers and trees, all on a delicately pierced geometric ground. The stone is.

A Chinese pale celadon jade vase and cover

The vase is decorated to each side with a striding dragon in low relief. There is an apocryphal Qianlong mark to one side of the neck and to the o.

A celadon jade vase with cover

A celadon jade vase of two sections with a cover The lower section vase, stylised with two ram shaped handles and standing on two feet, decorated .

A Chinese celadon jade water ‘buffalo and qilin’ group

The buffalo is carved recumbent with its legs tucked under it looking to one side, the qilin is seated by the hindquarters of the elephant, spewin.

A large Chinese celadon and russet jade ‘lotus and gold fish’ carving

The piece is carved in the round as a large curled lotus leaf which embraces two goldfish to the interior, with two bats and two pairs of caterpil.

A Chinese white jade 'scholars' boulder

The boulder is carved to one side with two scholars before a pavilion under pine and wisteria trees above a flowing river, all below an inscriptio.

A Chinese white and russet jade luohan, Damo

The Luohan is carved with curly hair and beard, and with an intense expression on his face. He is standing wearing long robes.Origin: ChinaPeriod.

A Chinese pale jade dragon turtle seal

A Chinese pale jade seal, surmounted by a crouching dragon turtle. The base is carved with a four-character seal mark.Origin: ChinaPeriod: Qing d.

A Chinese jade carved bowl and cover

The bowl is thinly carved with fluted sides in the shape of a chrysanthemum. The foot is similarly carved as a downturned floral bloom. Fitted wit.

A Chinese white and russet jade mountain

One side of the mountain is carved with a cow herd riding a water buffalo in a rocky landscape scene, and the other side is decorated with figures.

A Chinese pale celadon jade scepter

The sceptrer is of typical tapering arched form, the end of the handle carved in shallow relief with Chinese inscriptions to the reverse , termina.

A Chinese pale coral 'figural' carving

The branched coral is carved as Shoulao and a lady immortal accompanied by two attendants.18.00 cm high without standOrigin: ChinaPeriod: 20th cen.

A Chinese pale coral carving of a lady and a boy

The piece is carved with an elegant lady holding a parasol accompanied by a young boy, all standing before a branching tree with flowers and birds.

A Chinese red coral lady and boys carving

The piece is carved as an elegant lady accompanied by two boys all amongst grape bunches and large leafy grape vines.20.00 cm high without standOr.

A small Chinese red coral carving of a lady and boy

The figure is carved as an elegant lady wearing long robes accompanied by a boy at her feet. 9.5 cm high without standOrigin: ChinaPeriod: 20th ce.

A Chinese jade tiger carving

The stone is finely carved to depict a seated tiger with legs tucked under the body. The stone is of an even tone.Origin: ChinaPeriod: 20th centur.

A Chinese gilt-bronze spinach-green jade-inset scholar's mirror

The circular mirror is decorated to the reverse with a selection of the Eight Buddhist Emblems and inset hardstones, the rim of the reverse is ins.

Two Chinese jade carvings

One is a white a russet jade carving of a squirrel and two pods on a leafy stem. The other is a white jade carving a of a recumbent Buddhist Lion.

A Chinese white jade carving of the Laughing Twins

The piece is carved and pierced depicting the Laughing Twins, Hehe Erxian. One is standing leaning a large lotus leaf and the other is seated hold.

A Chinese pale celadon jade mountain

The jade mountain is carved in the round with stairs leading to pavilions in rocky grottoes all amongst gnarled pine and wisteria trees. The rever.

A Chinese bowenite box and cover

The box and cover are of rectangular section with canted corners. The cover is decorated in low relief with three scholars in a garden landscape. .

A Chinese pale celadon jade vase and cover

The flattened baluster vase is carved in relief to the body with scrolling lotus and is standing on a integrated stand. The shoulders are decorate.

A Chinese celadon jade mythical beast

The mythical beast is carved recumbent with its head resting on its front paws and its tail flicked over its haunches.Origin: ChinaPeriod: 19th ce.

A Chinese celadon jade flattened vase and cover

The vase is of flattened rectangular section and is decorated with a pair of coiled s-shaped handles at the neck. The round body is carved with a .

A large Chinese celadon jade 'dragon' seal

The seal is surmounted by a crouching dragon spewing a pearl, the sides are carved with excerpts from the Diamond Sutra. The base is carved with a.

A Chinese soapstone Guanyin figure on stand

A Chinese soapstone Guanyin figure seated with a boy held to her right side, dressed in a voluminous robe falling in folds about the bod, supporte.

A Chinese soapstone figure of an Immortal

The smiling figure is carved wearing a scholar's cap and long robes decorated with incised cloud scrolls. He holds a bamboo container in both of h.

Three Chinese soapstone figures

Three Chinese soapstone figures,-Two figures of a Lohan seated, wearing long robes and holding a scepter in his hand. 8.5 cm.- A figure carved sea.

A group of seventeen Chinese snuff bottles

The group comprises: a mouled enamelled snuff bottle decorated with a dragon above waves in relief, a caramel-toned shadow agate snuff bottle a g.

A small Chinese Qingbai shallow dish

The broad dish is potted with shallow everted sides. The interior is decorated with a freely combed design. The dish is covered to the interior an.


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